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EVERGREEN SHRUBS

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Juniperus communis Common Juniper
Ht. 3-4' W 10-20'. Prefers well-drained sand loam soils. Tolerates drought. Full sun. Aromatic, fine-textured foliage turning bronze during winter. Found abundantly in varied portions of northern and southeastern Minnesota growing on steep bluffs, river bottoms, margins of swamps, etc. Zone 3-4.

Juniperus horizontalis Spreading Juniper
Ht. 6-8" W 6-12'. Prefers sand to loam soils. Tolerates clay. Requires excellent drainage. Low spreading deep green foliage turning blue-purple during winter. Forms a dense ground cover. Abundant in far north of Minnesota and occurs locally on exposed sandstone cliffs in southeastern Minnesota. Zone 2-4.

EVERGREEN TREES

Abies balsamea Balsam Fir
Ht. 50' W 20'. Prefers loam, moist soils. Tolerates clay soils. Full sun or shade. Shiny, dark green aromatic needles. Tree becomes open with age. The only Fir native to Minnesota. Zone 2-4.

Juniperus virginiana Eastern Red Cedar
H. 45' W 15-20'.  Grows in sand to silty clay soils. Tolerates rocky, dry soils. Drought and heat tolerant. Full sun. Foliage turns plum color during winter. Berry-like cones add interest and attract birds in autumn. Zone 3-7.

Larix laricina Tamarack
Ht. 60' W 30-35'. Prefers wet acidic soils (pH 4.8-7.5). Tolerates mesic soils. Grows with Black Spruce in bogs. Bright green needles turn yellow in autumn. Early Americans used the soft needles to stuff pillows. Wonderful specimen or mass planting. Zone 2-4.

Picea glauca White Spruce
Ht. 50' W 12-16'. Prefers moist acidic soils. Loam to clay soils. Native species to northern coniferous forests and wetland edges. Pale green foliage with open , lacy pyramidal canopy. Zone 2-4.

Picea glauca densata Black Hills Spruce
Ht. 50' W 12-16'. Prefers mesic soils. Loams to fine clay. Native to North Dakota. Dark green foliage with dense pyramidal form. Tolerates hot dry winds. Excellent for specimen or massing. Zone 2-5.

Picea mariana Black Spruce
Ht. 50' W 10-12'.  Prefers moist, acidic soils. Tolerates mesic upland and nutrient-poor soils. Full sun to part shade. Grows with Tamarack in peat bogs. Short dark green needles and pendulous cones. Very upright grower. Zone 2-4.

Pinus banksiana Jack Pine
Ht. 50' W 20-35'. Grows best on sandy well-drained soils. Requires full sun. Short needles. An upright picturesque tree of the Pine Barrens. Zone 2-3.

Pinus resinosa Red Pine
Ht. 75' W 35-55'. Sand to loamy soils. Upland mesic/dry. Full sun. Minnesota State Tree. Also called Norway Pine. Long dark green needles. Reddish bark. Canopy becomes open and flat-topped with age. Zone 2-4.

Pinus strobus White Pine
Ht. 75' W 35-55'. Moist, well-drained to heavy clay soils. Full sun to light shade. Soft blue-green needles. Originally grew as far south where the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers intersect. Remnants survived the logging days. Picturesque, horizontal branching habit. Zone 3-7.

Thuja occidenalis Northern White Cedar                                                                      
Ht. 45-60' W 10-12'. Tolerates most soils and light shade. Prefers full sun. Foliage is very aromatic and used for incense, medicine wreaths and other decorations. Excellent for hedges and screening. Long- lived. Zone 2-4.

Tsuga canadensis Canadian Hemlock
Ht. 60' W 30-35'. Prefers loam soils. Wet to mesic soil moisture. Rare native Minnesota large tree. Requires protection from drying winter winds. Shade tolerant. Excellent for hedges or mixed evergreen tree plantings. Wisconsin seed source. Zone 3-4.  

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