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Recommendations for:
Butterflies (wildflowers) | Hummingbirds (wildflowers) | Birds (shrubs) | Birds (trees)
Woodlands (wildflowers) | Woodlands (shrubs) | Woodlands (trees)
Ornament (trees) | Shade (trees)
Rain gardens (wildflowers) | Wetlands (shrubs) | Wetlands (trees)
The Edible Garden 
| Buckthorn Replacement | Deer

Full sun/direct light all day
Part shade/direct light for six to eight hours or filtered light/light under a tree canopy can reach the ground
Shade/light under a tree canopy cannot reach the ground.

 Wildflowers for Butterfly Attraction

Genus/species:

Common name:

Light:

Flower:

Agastache foeniculum Fragrant Hyssop   June-Aug
Amphora canescens Leadplant June-July
Aquilegia canadensis Wild Columbine   April-May
Asclepias incarnata Marsh Milkweed July
Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly Milkweed July-Aug
Aster cordifolius Heartleaf Aster Sept-Oct
Aster laevis Smooth Aster Aug-Sept
Aster macrophyllus Large-leaved Aster   Sept-Oct
Aster novae angliae New England Aster   Sept-Oct
Aster oblongifolius Aromatic Aster Sept-Oct
Aster oolentangiensis Sky Blue Aster   Sept-Oct
Aster ptarmicoides White Upland Aster July-Sept
Aster sericeus Silky Aster Sept-Oct
Ceanothus americanus New Jersey Tea   June-July
Echinacea pallida Pale Coneflower   June-July
Echinacea purpurea Purple Coneflower   Aug-Sept
Eupatorium maculatum Joe Pye Weed July
Eupatorium perfoliatum Boneset Aug-Sept
Liatris aspera Rough Blazingstar Aug-Oct
Liatris cylindracea Cylindric Blazingstar Aug-Oct
Liatris ligulistylis Meadow Blazingstar Aug-Sept
Liatris pycnostachya Prairie Blazingstar July-Aug
Liatris punctata Dotted Blazingstar Aug-Sept
Petalostemum purpureum Purple Prairie Clover July-Sept
Ratibida pinnata Yellow Coneflower July-Sept
Rudbeckia subtomentosa Sweet Black Eyed Susan   Aug-Oct
Silphium laciniatum Compass Plant July-Sept
Silphium perf oliatum Cupplant   July-Sept
Verbena stricta Hoary Vervain July-Aug
Vernonia fasciculata Ironweed July-Sept

Wildflowers to Attract Hummingbirds

Genus/species:

Common name:

Light:

Flower:

Aquilegia canadensis Wild Columbine   April-May
Iris versicolor Wild Iris      June-July
Iris virginica var. shrevei Blue Flag Iris

June-July
Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower      July-Sept
Lobelia siphilitica Great Blue Lobelia      Aug-Sept
Penstemon grandiflorus Large-flowered Beardtongue      May-June
Physostegra virginiana False Dragonhead      June-Sept
Ruellia humilis Wild Petunia      June-Sept
Silene regia Royal Catchfly      July-Aug


Shrubs to Attract Birds

Genus/species:

Common name:

Light:

Fruit:

Amelanchier alnifolia Saskatoon Serviceberry   June-July
Amelanchier alnifolia 'Regent'  Regent Serviceberry   June-July
Amelanchier sanguinea Sand (Roundleaf ) Serviceberry June-July
Amelanchier stolonifera Running Serviceberry June-July
Cornus amomum Silky Dogwood September
Cornus obliqua Pale Dogwood August
Cornus racemosa Gray Dogwood   Aug-Sept
Cornus sericea Red-Twigged Dogwood September
Ilex verticillata Winterberry Aug-Sept
Prunus besseyi Western Sandcherry July-Aug
Prunus pumila Eastern Sandcherry July-Aug
Rhus aromatica Fragrant Sumac Aug-March
Rhus glabra Smooth Sumac Sept-March
Rhus typhina Staghorn Sumac Sept-March
Ribes americanum American Black Currant July-Aug
Ribes cynosbati Pasture Gooseberry July-Aug
Ribes missouriensis Missouri Gooseberry July-Aug
Rubus allegheniensis Highbush Blackberry   July-Aug
Rubus idaeus canadensis Northern Raspberry July-Aug
Rubus occidentalis Black Raspberry July-Aug
Sambucus canadensis American Elder Aug-Sept
Sambucus pubens Red-Berried Elder   June-July
Vaccinium corymbosum Highbush Blueberry   July-Aug
Viburnum lentago Nannyberry Viburnum Sept-Oct
Viburnum raf inesquianum Downy Arrow wood Viburnum   Sept-Oct
Vibrunum trilobum American Cranberry   Sept-Feb

Trees to Attract Birds

Genus/species:

Common name:

Light:

Fruit:

Amelanchier arborea Downy Serviceberry   June-July
Amelanchier laevis Allegheny Serviceberry   June-July
Amelanchier x grandiflora Apple Serviceberry   June-July
Celtis occidentalis Hackberry Sept-Oct
Cornus alternifolisa Pagoda Dogwood   July-Aug
Juniperus virginiana Eastern Red Cedar July-March
Morus rubra Red Mulberry June-July
Prunus americana American Plum Aug-Sept
Prunus pennsylvanica Pin Cherry July-Aug
Prunus serotina Black Cherry Aug-Sept
Prunus virginiana Common Chokecherry Aug-Sept
Sorbus decora Showy Mountain Ash Aug-Oct

Wildflowers for Woodlands  

Genus/species:

Common name:

Light:

 Bloom:

Actea rubra Red Baneberry   May-June
Adiantum pedatum Maidenhair Fern  
Anemone canadensis Canada Mayflower April-May
Anemonella thalictroides Rue Anemone   April-May
Aquilegia canadensis Wild Columbine April-May
Arisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the-Pulpit   April-May
Asarum canadense Wild Ginger   May-June
Aster cordif olius Heartleaf Aster Sept-Oct
Aster novae angliae New England Aster Sept-Oct
Aster oblongif olius Aromatic Aster Sept-Oct
Aster oolentangiensis Sky Blue Aster Sept-Oct
Aster macrophyllus Large-leaved Aster Aug-Sept
Athyrium filix femina Lady Fern  
Carex pennsylvanica Pennsylvania Sedge
Geranium maculatum Wild Geranium   April-July
Hydrophyllum virginianum Virginia Waterleaf April-May
Hystrix patula Bottlebrush Grass
Iris cristata Dwarf Crested Iris April-May
Matteuccia struthiopteris Ostrich Fern  
Mertensia virginica Virginia Bluebells April-May
Onolcea sensibilis Sensitive Fern
Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon Fern  
Phlox divaricata Woodland Phlox May-June
Polemonium reptans Jacobs Ladder   May-June
Polygonatum bif lorum Solomons Seal May-June
Rudbeckia subtomentosa Sweet Black Eyed Susan Aug-Sept
Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot May-June
Smilacina racemosa False Solomons Seal May-June
Solodago f lexicaulis Zig-Zag Goldenrod Aug-Sept
Trillium grandif lorum Large-f lowered Trillium   May-June
Veronicastrum virginicum Culver's Root July-Aug

Shrubs for Woodlands

Genus/species:

Common name:

Light:

 Fruit:

Alnus rugosa Speckled Alder July-Aug
Amelanchier sanguinea Sand (Roundleaf) Serviceberry June-July
Aronia melanocarpa Glossy Black Chokeberry June-July
Cornus racemosa Gray Dogwood Aug-Sept
Corylus americana American Hazelnut Aug-Sept
Coyrlus cornuta Beaked Filbert   Aug-Sept
Diervilla lonicera Bronzeleaf Diervilla   June-July
Dirca palustris Leatherwood  
Euonymus atropurpurea Eastern Wahoo Aug-Sept
Hamamelis virginiana Witch Hazel
Juniperus communis Common Juniper
Ribes americanum American Black Currant July-Aug
Ribes cynosbati Pasture Gooseberry July-Aug
Ribes missouriensis Missouri gooseberry July-Aug
Rubus parviflorus Thimbleberry   July-Aug
Sambucus pubens Red-berried Elder   Aug-Sept
Staphylea trifolia American Bladdernut  
Symphoricarpos albus White Snowberry   June-July
Taxus canadensis Canada Yew  
Vaccinium angustifolium Lowbush Blueberry July-Aug
Vaccinium corymbosum Highbush Blueberry July-Aug
Viburnum lentago Nannyberry Aug-Sept
Viburnum rafinesquianum Downy Arrowwood Aug-Sept
Viburnum trilobum American Highbush Cranberry Sept-Feb

Trees for Ornament

Genus/species:

Common name:

Light:

  Bloom:

Amelanchier arborea Downy Serviceberry   May-June
Amelanchier laevis Allegheny Serviceberry   May-June
Amelanchier x grandiflora Apple Serviceberry   May-June
Carpinus caroliniana Blue Beech (Musclewood)  
Cercis canadensis Redbud (MN Strain)   May-June
Cornus alternifolia Pagoda Dogwood   June-July
Crataegus crus-galli Cockspur Hawthorn May-June
Euonymus atropurpurea Eastern Wahoo/Spindle Tree   June-July
Prunus pennsylvanica Pin Cherry May-June
Sorbus decora Showy Mountain Ash May-June

Trees for Shade
Genus/species: Common name:

Light:

 
Acer rubrum Red Maple  
Acer saccharum Sugar Maple  
Betula alleghaniensis Yellow Birch  
Betula papyrifera Paper Birch  
Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory  
Celtis occidentalis Hackberry  
Fraxinus americana White Ash  
Gymnocladus dioicus Kentucky Coffeetree  
Prunus serotina Wild Black Cherry  
Quercus alba White Oak  
Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak  
Quercus macrocarpa Bur Oak  
Quercus rubra Red Oak  
Tilia americana American Basswood  

Wildflowers for Raingardens
Genus/species: Common name:

Light:

  Bloom:

Acorus calamus Sweet Flag

 

Andropogan gerardii Big Bluestem
Anemone canadensis Canada Mayflower   April-May
Arisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the-Pulpit   April-May
Aster novae angliae New England Aster   Sept-Oct
Athyrium filix femina Lady Fern  
Carex crinita Fringed Sedge  
Eupatorium maculatum Joe Pye Weed   July-Aug
Eupatorium perfoliatum Boneset   Aug-Sept
Gentiana andrewsii Bottle Gentian Aug-Oct
Hydrophyllum virginianum Virginia Waterleaf   April-May
Iris versicolor Blue Flag Iris June-July
Juncus tenuis Path Rush
Liatris ligulistylis Meadow Blazingstar Aug-Sept
Liatris pycnostachya Prairie Blazingstar July-Aug
Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower July-Sept
Lobelia siphilitica Great Blue Lobelia Aug-Sept
Matteuccia struthiopteris Ostrich Fern  
Mimulus ringens Monkeyflower June-July
Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern  
Osmunda cinnamonea Cinnamon Fern  
Panicum virgatum Switchgrass
Sorghastrum nutans Indian Grass
Vernonia fasciculata Ironweed July-Sept
Veronicastrum virginicum Culver's Root   July-Aug

Shrubs for Wetlands
These plants are ideal for shorelines, wetlands, and low areas.
Genus/species: Common name:

Light:

Soil:
Alnus rugosa Speckled Alder   wet-mesic
Amphora fruiticosa False Indigo   wet-mesic
Aronia melanocarpa Glossy Black Chokeberry   wet-mesic
Betula pumila var. glandulifera Bog Birch wet
Cephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush wet
Cornus amomum Silky Dogwood wet-mesic
Cornus sericea Red-Twigged Dogwood wet-mesic
Ilex verticillata Winterberry wet-mesic
Salix humilis Prairie Willow wet-mesic
Salix interior Sandbar Willow wet
Salix lucida Shining Willow wet
Salix rigida Heart-leaf Willow wet-mesic
Sambucus canadensis American Elder   wet-mesic
Spiraea alba Meadowsweet wet-mesic
Spiraea tomentosa Hardhack Spirea (Steeplebush) wet-mesic
Vibrunum trilobum American Cranberry   wet-mesic

Trees for Wetlands
Genus/species: Common name:

Light:

Soil:
Acer rubrum Red Maple   wet-mesic
Acer saccharinum Silver Maple   wet
Betula nigra River Birch wet-mesic
Fraxinus nigra Black Ash wet-mesic
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Green Ash wet-mesic
Larix laricina Tamarack wet-mesic
Picea mariana Black Spruce   wet-mesic
Populus deltoides Cottonwood wet-mesic
Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak   wet-mesic
Salix amygdaloides Peachleaf Willow wet
Salix bebbiana Bebbs Willow wet-mesic
Salix discolor Pussy Willow wet
Salix nigra Black Willow wet
Thuja occidentalis Northern White Cedar   wet-mesic

The Edible Garden

Genus/species:

Common name:

Light:

Fruit/nut:

Amelanchier alnifolia Saskatoon Serviceberry   June-July
Amelanchier alnifolia 'Regent' Regent Serviceberry   June-July
Amelanchier arborea Downy Serviceberry   June-July
Amelanchier laevis Allegheny Serviceberry   June-July
Amelanchier stolonifera Running Serviceberry June-July
Aronia  melanocarpa Glossy Black Chokeberry   June-Aug
Carya ovata Shagbark Hickory Aug-Sept
Corylus americana American Hazelnut   Aug-Sept
Corylus cornuta Beaked Hazelnut   Aug-Sept
Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry June-July
Juglans cinerea Butternut Sept-Oct
Juglans nigra Black Walnut Sept-Oct
Morus rubra Red Mulberry   June-Aug
Prunus americana American Plum Aug-Sept
Prunus pennsylvanica Pin Cherry July-Aug
Prunus serotina Wild Black Cherry   Aug-Sept
Prunus virginiana Common Chokecherry   Aug-Sept
Ribes americanum American Black Currant   July-Aug
Ribes cynosbati Pasture Gooseberry July-Aug
Ribes missouriensis Missouri Gooseberry   July-Aug
Rubus allegheniensis Highbush Blackberry   July-Aug
Rubus hispida Dewberry   July-Aug
Rubus idaeus canadensis Northern Raspberry   July-Aug
Rubus occidentalis Black Raspberry   July-Aug
Rubus parviflorus Thimbleberry   July-Aug
Sambucus canadensis American Elder Aug-Sept
Vaccinium angustifolium Lowbush Blueberry   July-Aug
Viburnum angustifolium American Cranberry   Sept-Feb
Vitis riparia Riverbank Grape   July-Aug

Buckthorn Replacement
(History & Solutions)

Genus/species:

Common name:

Light:

Soil:

Acer saccharum Sugar Maple   Wet-Mesic
Alnus rugosa Speckled Alder   Wet-Mesic
Amelanchier alnifolia Saskatoon Serviceberry   Mesic
Amelanchier alnifolia 'Regent' Regent Serviceberry   Mesic
Amelanchier arborea Downy Serviceberry   Dry-Mesic
Amelanchier laevis Allegheny Serviceberry   Mesic
Aronia melanocarpa Glossy Black Chokeberry   Wet-Mesic
Carpinus caroliniana Blue Beech   Wet-Mesic
Cornus alternifolia Pagoda Dogwood   Mesic
Cornus sericea Red-Twig Dogwood   Wet-Mesic
Cornus racemosa Gray Dogwood   Dry-Mesic
Corylus americana American Hazelnut        Dry-Wet
Crataegus macracantha Fleshy Hawthorn   Mesic
Euonymus atropurpurea Eastern Wahoo   Mesic
Hammamelis virginiana Witch Hazel   Mesic
Ostrya virginiana Ironwood   Dry-Wet
Physocarpus opulifolius Common Ninebark   Mesic
Prunus americana American Plum Mesic
Prunus pennsylvanica Pin Cherry   Wet-Mesic
Prunus serotina Wild Black Cherry   Dry-Mesic
Prunus virginiana Common Chokecherry   Dry-Wet
Quercus rubra Red Oak   Mesic
Salix discolor Pussy Willow   Wet-Mesic
Salix  sericea Red Willow   Wet-Mesic
Salix nigra Black Willow   Wet-Mesic
Sambucus canadensis American Elder Mesic
Sambucus pubens Red-berried Elder   Mesic
Tilia americana American Basswood   Dry-Mesic
Viburnum lentago Nannyberry   Mesic
Viburnum trilobum American Cranberry   Mesic

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